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View purchasing options. Show Hide Page Numbers. Copy to Clipboard. Looks like you do not have access to this content. Click here for free trial login. Find within title. Smith remembers him as a mild-mannered teenager who was raised by her parents until his arrest. She hates to see him in Angola, and she hopes that the Supreme Court hearing could lead to his release.
Coleman, who is now 60, started visiting him almost 40 years ago.
Before that, no one in the family was able to, she said. Their grandparents, who raised Montgomery, were elderly. His mother was autistic and unable to visit him on her own, she said. Coleman said her cousin has always been generous with his advice. Over the years, he has become a hero of sorts to her, she said. Coleman was in grade school when her cousin, whom she calls by his last name, was arrested. First, deputies came to the house and roughed up her uncle, Wendell Smith. Click here to see the entire front page.
Hurt had been killed in a park the day before Montgomery was arrested. His lawyers consistently argued that Montgomery, who was skipping school that day, became terrified and killed Hurt as the deputy frisked him. After all, it was the early s and police were often heavy-handed in working-class, African-American communities. Before it was annexed by Baton Rouge 40 years ago, Scotlandville, where the murder took place, was the largest majority-black town in Louisiana, a place where boys grew up hearing stories of innocent men who were picked up for random crimes and sent to prison.
To neighbors, a guy like Montgomery, who had known cognitive impairments, seemed like an easy scapegoat, someone who might be prone to confess. As a result, Hurt was familiar with the part of Scotlandville where he was killed.
Its narrow streets are lined with large trees and modest homes, dotted with a few churches, auto shops, a liquor store and an American Legion hall. Yet the area felt like a war zone the day Hurt was killed. Nearly deputies and police officers from neighboring parishes came to set up roadblocks and make mass arrests. Black men and teens were detained all across Scotlandville that afternoon. Seven of the arrested men located by the Juvenile Justice Information Exchange remember that day clearly, even 52 years later.
That matches with the memory of Joe Louis Bowie, now He was getting off the bus from New Orleans when deputies nabbed him. A Baton Rouge Morning Advocate story described the wide-ranging search. In , Isaiah Henry, then a year-old military veteran, was arrested as he and five classmates drove home from Southern University, which sits on a curve of the Mississippi River across the railroad tracks from the park.
He recalled that he and his fellow students called Ulysses S. There was no outrage about the roundup, Henry said. Even today, if Morris Scott, 78, sees flashing lights and police cars lined up, he will not stop to ask what happened. The day Hurt was killed, Scott was headed to work not far from his house on Oriole Street. That day, they heard all sorts of sirens a few blocks away. Jordan Park, the scene of the crime. Then the officers moved toward the park entrance and trained their guns on the crowd, fingers on the triggers, Scott said.
It was the biggest manhunt ever seen in Scotlandville, said Scott and the other men, now elderly. The jail log for that day includes the handwritten names, ages and addresses of 60 men from 12 to 59 years old. On the day that Deputy Charles Hurt was murdered in a nearby park, roughly law-enforcement officers from neighboring parishes swarmed streets here, setting up roadblocks and detaining a few hundred black men.
Henry too thought the actual numbers were much higher than He asked to hear all the names on the jail list, then said that of his group of six men, his was the only name recorded.
- American Mathematical Monthly, volume 117, number 4, April 2010.
- The Fabric of Affect in the Psychoanalytic Discourse (The New Library of Psychoanalysis).
- Big Girl.
While most were released early the next morning, some were kept longer. Consequences were more weighty for Wilbert Forrest, 23, then a Southern University student, who was taken into custody the same day as Montgomery.
Bookshelf | The Marshall Project
Deputies told him that he looked like someone who had shot a policeman, he said. He was held more than two weeks, though he was transferred after about a week to neighboring Port Allen on a trumped-up charge — shooting at cows, he said — that was eventually dropped. Our carceral state banishes American citizens to a gray wasteland far beyond the promises and protections the government grants its other citizens.
And banishment was not simply a well-intended response to rising crime. As the civil-rights movement wound down, Moynihan looked out and saw a black population reeling under the effects of years of bondage and plunder. He believed that these effects could be addressed through state action.
They were—through the mass incarceration of millions of black people. The Gray Wastes—our carceral state, a sprawling netherworld of prisons and jails—are a relatively recent invention. What caused this? Crime would seem the obvious culprit: Between and , the murder rate doubled, the robbery rate quadrupled, and the aggravated-assault rate nearly quintupled. But the relationship between crime and incarceration is more discordant than it appears. The incarceration rate rose independent of crime—but not of criminal-justice policy. Derek Neal, an economist at the University of Chicago, has found that by the early s, a suite of tough-on-crime laws had made prison sentences much more likely than in the past.
Examining a sample of states, Neal found that from to , the likelihood of a long prison sentence nearly doubled for drug possession, tripled for drug trafficking, and quintupled for nonaggravated assault.
Ill-Equipped: U.S. Prisons and Offenders with Mental Illness
That explosion in rates and duration of imprisonment might be justified on grounds of cold pragmatism if a policy of mass incarceration actually caused crime to decline. History has not been kind to this conclusion. For more see Michael Tonry and David P. The rise and fall in crime in the late 20th century was an international phenomenon. Crime rates rose and fell in the United States and Canada at roughly the same clip—but in Canada, imprisonment rates held steady.
In the latter half of the 20th century, crime rose and then fell in Nordic countries as well. During the period of rising crime, incarceration rates held steady in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden—but declined in Finland. This bloating of the prison population may not have reduced crime much, but it increased misery among the group that so concerned Moynihan.
Among all black males born since the late s, one in four went to prison by their mids; among those who dropped out of high school, seven in 10 did.