In Vivo Glucose Sensing

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Biosensor lecture(, by Ms. Madhuri Sharma

Description Content Author information In Vivo Glucose Sensing is a key reference for scientists and engineers working on the development of glucose sensing technologies for the management of diabetes and other medical conditions. Chapter 1. Wilson and Yanana Zhang. Chapter 2. Godek and David W.

Glucose Sensing with Microneedles

Chapter 3. Kenneth Ward and Heather M. Chapter 4. Makale and Jared B. Chapter 5. Chapter 6. The NIR spectroscopy is used as an optical method of measurement in the sensor. The GBP changes conformation upon binding of glucose, increasing fluorescence quenching, which is observed to be proportional to the glucose concentration. Similar studies have been showcased with Boronic Acid BA functionalization on nanotubes.

At NoPo, we have perfected this method for industrial scale to ensure the availability of this wonder material to creators across the globe. Yum, T. McNicholas, B. Mu, and M. Diabetes Sci. Song, P.

Pehrsson, and W. B , vol. Tu, P. Reader device is also capable of wired, wireless, or combined communication with a remote computer system over communication path or link and with trusted computer system over communication path or link Communication paths and can be part of a telecommunications network, such as a Wi-Fi network, a local area network LAN , a wide area network WAN , the internet, or other data network for uni-directional or bi-directional communication.

In an alternative embodiment, communication paths and can be the same path. All communications over paths , , and can be encrypted and sensor control device , reader device , remote computer system , and trusted computer system can each be configured to encrypt and decrypt those communications sent and received. Sensor control device can include a housing containing in vivo analyte monitoring circuitry and a power source see, e. The in vivo analyte monitoring circuitry of the sensor control device is electrically coupled with a dermal sensor that extends through an adhesive patch and projects away from housing Adhesive patch contains an adhesive layer not shown for attachment to a skin surface of the body of the user.

Other forms of attachment to the body may be used, in addition to or instead of adhesive. Sensor is adapted to be at least partially inserted into the body of the user, where it can make contact with that user's dermal fluid. Sensor is used, along with the in vivo analyte monitoring circuitry, to determine an analyte level of the user. That analyte level can be communicated, e.

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Dermal fluid is a clear fluid that is found in the dermal layer of the skin. This fluid typically does not include blood, but can in some instances.


The presence of blood can, however, temporarily detract from the accuracy of the measurements. An insertion needle can be optionally included to create the insertion path for dermal sensor Here, insertion needle is placed adjacent to dermal sensor and a tip portion of insertion needle is angled over dermal sensor In another example embodiment, dermal sensor can reside within a lumen, interior space, or groove of the insertion needle, e.

Dermal sensor and insertion needle can each be configured, and dermal sensor can also be placed and oriented with respect to insertion needle , in any of the manners described in the incorporated application Ser. For example, in any of the embodiments described herein, insertion needle can have or can lack an interior space such as a lumen or cut-out, etc. Alternatively, dermal sensor can act as the needle itself, in which case a distinct insertion needle other than sensor can be omitted.

Sensor and any accompanying sensor control electronics can be applied to the body in any desired manner. For example, also shown in FIG. In other embodiments, insertion device can position sensor first, and then the accompanying sensor control electronics can be coupled to sensor afterwards, either manually or with the aid of a mechanical device. In certain embodiments, display and input component may be integrated into a single component, for example a display that can detect the presence and location of a physical contact touch upon the display such as a touch screen user interface.

In such embodiments, the user may control the operation of reader device by utilizing a set of pre-programmed motion commands, including, but not limited to, single or double tapping the display, dragging a finger or instrument across the display, motioning multiple fingers or instruments toward one another, motioning multiple fingers or instruments away from one another, etc. In certain embodiments, a display includes a touch screen having areas of pixels with single or dual function capacitive elements that serve as LCD elements and touch sensors.

Reader device can also include one or more data communication ports not shown for wired data communication with external devices such as a remote terminal, e. Example data communication ports include USB ports, mini USB ports, RS ports, Ethernet ports, Firewire ports, or other similar data communication ports configured to connect to the compatible data cables. Reader device may also include an integrated or attachable in vitro glucose meter, including an in vitro test strip port not shown to receive an in vitro glucose test strip for performing in vitro blood glucose measurements.

Display can be configured to display a variety of information—some or all of which may be displayed at the same or different time on display The displayed information can be user-selectable so that a user can customize the information shown on a given display screen. Display may include, but is not limited to, a graphical display, for example, providing a graphical output of glucose values over a monitored time period which may show: markers such as meals, exercise, sleep, heart rate, blood pressure, etc.

In certain embodiments, reader device can be configured to output alarms, alert notifications, glucose values, etc. Other devices such as personal computers have also been utilized with or incorporated into in vivo and in vitro monitoring systems. In certain embodiments, sensor control device may be configured to at least periodically broadcast real time data associated with monitored analyte level which is received by reader device , when reader device is within communication range of the data broadcast from sensor control device , e.

In certain other embodiments, reader device may be configured to transmit one or more commands to sensor control device to initiate data transfer, and in response, sensor control device may be configured to wirelessly transmit stored analyte related data collected during the monitoring time period to reader device Reader device may also be connected to a trusted computer system that can be used for authentication of a third party software application.

In both instances, reader device can function as a data conduit to transfer the stored analyte level information from the sensor control device to remote terminal or trusted computer system In certain embodiments, the received data from the sensor control device may be stored permanently or temporarily in one or more memories of reader device Remote terminal may be a personal computer, a server terminal, a laptop computer, a tablet, or other suitable data processing device. Remote terminal can be or include software for data management and analysis and communication with the components in analyte monitoring system Operation and use of remote terminal is further described in the incorporated ' Publication.

Analyte monitoring system can also be configured to operate with a data processing module not shown , also as described in the incorporated ' Publication. Trusted computer system can include one or more computers, servers, networks, databases, and the like. These functions can also be performed indirectly via remote terminal Such information may be displayed at these locations in any of the formats already described herein. Other visual indicators, including colors, flashing, fading, etc. For example, based on a determined rate of glucose change, programmed clinically significant glucose threshold levels e.

Reader device can be a mobile communication device such as a mobile telephone including, but not limited to, a Wi-Fi or internet enabled smart phone, tablet, or personal digital assistant PDA.

Biomedical Optics Express

Reader device can also be configured as a mobile smart wearable electronics assembly, such as an optical assembly that is worn over or adjacent to the user's eye e. This optical assembly can have a transparent display that displays information about the user's analyte level as described herein to the user while at the same time allowing the user to see through the display such that the user's overall vision is minimally obstructed.

The optical assembly may be capable of wireless communications similar to a smart phone. Other examples of wearable electronics include devices that are worn around or in the proximity of the user's wrist e. In vivo analyte monitoring systems can also operate without the need for finger stick calibration.

Also disclosed are embodiments for modulating perfusion at a dermal site, where the modulation can increase perfusion at the site to a level that is greater than the level of perfusion without such modulation. Perfusion can be increased dramatically at a perfusion-modulated site relative to the non-modulated site. Increases can range, e.

Perfusion increase may be measured by, for example, Doppler perfusion monitoring. While the present embodiments are described in the context of increasing perfusion in the dermal layer, these embodiments can also be adapted to increase perfusion at other layers as well, such as the subcutaneous layer.

A number of mechanisms can be implemented to increase cutaneous perfusion, including but not limited to the application of heat local heating of the skin, e.